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An Overview Of Clickjacking Vulnerability Or Attack

By Tom Seest

What Is a Clickjacking Vulnerability Or Attack?

A clickjacking vulnerability or attack is a common type of web attack that involves embedding malicious code in an invisible iframe on a web page. These codes can manipulate the user’s cursor and trigger online purchases. Some common examples of this type of attack include Amazon purchase buttons and Facebook-like buttons. These can be used to redirect a user to Facebook fan pages.

This photo was taken by Tima Miroshnichenko and is available on Pexels at https://www.pexels.com/photo/people-in-black-hoodie-celebrating-their-success-5380677/.

What Are Clickjacking X-Frame Options?

An HTTP header called X-Frame-Options defines a policy for rendering a resource, letting the browser know whether it should render it within an iframe or frame. The header must be included in the HTTP response for every page a visitor views. Most modern browsers support the header, but some browsers do not. If this is the case, the attacker may be able to execute a clickjacking attack on the victim.
In an attempt to prevent frame-busting attacks, developers can enable the X-Frame-Options header, which limits the use of frames and content on web pages. The header can be enabled or disabled on individual pages, and it can also be set at the Web Application Firewall level.
In preventing clickjacking attacks, the X-Frame-Options header is used in the HTTP response. This HTTP response header is an important precaution against clickjacking attacks. By using this header, you can prevent third-party content from being embedded in frames. Besides protecting your website’s content, it can protect your website’s users and website from other attacks.
CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) is another type of attack that has gained attention in Hacker News. Although X-Frame-Options mitigates clickjacking attacks, they do not protect you from CSRF. For more information about CSRF, please visit OWASP’s website.
While some websites allow pre-population of form inputs, others require that users enter the required text before submission. By modifying GET values, attackers can modify the target URL without the user’s knowledge. For example, they can override a transparent “submit” button on a decoy website.
Content Security Policy (CSP) is another defense against clickjacking attacks. It allows application developers to restrict frame use, but it is not supported by all browsers. Browser plugins may also bypass CSP. Browsers are supposed to prioritize CSP-compliant frames, but this does not always happen.
Clickjacking attacks can be very dangerous, as they can force users to complete an action that they did not intend. In most cases, a clickjacking attack requires the user to be in a valid session on the movie website in order to trigger the attack. The attacker needs to be able to re-create the action that prompted them to click the “buy” button.
Clickjacking is a kind of attack where an attacker exploits the X-Frame options feature in an application to control a computer’s browser. A clickjacking attack can steal confidential information or even take control of the computer. By using an iframe or window that mimics the user’s browser, the attacker can manipulate the user’s computer to execute arbitrary commands.

This photo was taken by Tima Miroshnichenko and is available on Pexels at https://www.pexels.com/photo/two-people-having-a-video-call-5380679/.

What Is the Hidden Overlay Technique In Clickjacking?

The Hidden overlay technique is a form of clickjacking vulnerability or attack, where an attacker can cause a user to click on unexpected web page elements. This attack was coined from the term “click hijacking,” which means “to hijack clicks.” The technique works by displaying malicious content over a trusted web page, such as a video player. The user clicks on the play symbol on the malicious page, which in turn causes the attacker to trigger a malicious action. This action can be anything from faking a social media account to siphoning money from a user’s bank account.
This hidden overlay technique can also be used by attackers to redirect the victim to an unknown page. The attackers can use fragments of a tool page to create an iframe with a Submit button. The attackers can use this technique to steal customer information and redirect them to a phishing website or a Facebook-like site.
To stop the Hidden overlay technique, you must prevent the use of hidden elements in your website’s UI. To prevent this, you can use a Content Security Policy (CSP), implement an X-Frame-Options header in the HTTP response, and use a good firewall system.
Another method of clickjacking is called cursor hacking. This involves placing a small iframe (e.g., 1×1) on a web page, which the user will click without realizing it. The overseeing system overlays controls from the malicious site on the genuine page, including hyperlinks. This technique makes the user believe that the links are valid, but it is simply a trick.
The hidden overlay technique is another common clickjacking vulnerability or attack. It involves using an invisible overlay layer to disguise two web pages in a browser window. The attacker has to control part of the website or modify it, which is why the hidden overlay technique is so prevalent. After the attacker has control of the site, he or she places an invisible layer on top of the normal click, causing the client to execute a different command than what it intended.
The hidden overlay technique is a form of clickjacking vulnerability or attack, which can be used to steal a user’s password or credit card number. It is also used for other purposes, including spreading malware, gaining access to critical systems, and buying products online.
The hidden overlay technique is an attack technique that is very easy to use. An attacker can create a browser-based game that displays in a popup window. The game offers prizes for winning. The attacker can also overlay the desired online application on top of the game page. In this way, the attacker can place clickable elements in the exact location of the controls he or she desires. This method exploits the fact that the user is unaware of the invisible controls and activates them unintentionally.

This photo was taken by Tima Miroshnichenko and is available on Pexels at https://www.pexels.com/photo/man-in-black-hoodie-having-a-video-call-5380682/.

Are CSRF Tokens Used In Clickjacking?

CSRF tokens are a common attack vector for Clickjacking, an interface-based vulnerability in which an attacker tricks a user into clicking on actionable content on a hidden website. In this attack, a legitimate website is loaded as an iframe within the malicious one and configured to be nearly transparent.
The attacker must first obtain a valid token and match it with the correct parameters. This way, the attacker can impersonate any user without revealing his identity. Alternatively, the attacker can switch from the POST method to the GET method, thereby bypassing CSRF validation.
The attacker can then add items to a user’s shopping basket or change their delivery address. As most websites store user information, CSRF allows an attacker to change the information and trick the website into thinking that the user made the changes. Fortunately, there are ways to prevent this by blocking third-party cookies or by synchronizing a cookie with an anti-CSRF token.
Bank websites use POST requests. Because they don’t accept href tags or form tags, malicious requests cannot be framed with these tags. The attacker would also not know the current password that the user has entered. But the CSRF token mechanism is not a foolproof solution for this vulnerability.
Clickjacking is a form of phishing in which an attacker attempts to trick a user into making a purchase, changing permissions on the website, or performing other nefarious activities. A common example of a clickjacking attack is a web page loaded in an iframe. This iframe has the target website’s content moved to the upper-left corner of the browser’s window, which makes it easier for the attacker to overlay a button on it. Additionally, JavaScript is used to ensure that the target iframe follows the mouse pointer.
In order to protect against this vulnerability, developers need to identify which server-side operations are sensitive. In many cases, these operations involve login forms and must be secured. The most common way to do this is to use a secure hash function to hash the user’s session ID. This will help the server compare the expected value with the actual value of the input field.
Another way to secure your application is to use a cookie prefix. Cookie prefixes are supported by all browsers except for Internet Explorer. The Mozilla Developer Network and the IETF Draft both have information on how to do this. But there are two common ways to bypass this security mechanism. The first method involves adding a double submit cookie with a value to the request. The other way involves using a custom request header.
Another way to prevent CSRF is by setting the SameSite attribute on the cookie. This attribute instructs the browser not to use cookies from other sites. It also instructs the browser to only send cookies from the same location. While this method may not be secure, it works well enough.

This photo was taken by Tima Miroshnichenko and is available on Pexels at https://www.pexels.com/photo/two-people-hacking-a-computer-system-5380839/.